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Navy Submarine, Missing for 75 Years, Is Found Off Okinawa

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A 75-year-old thriller has been solved, and the households of 80 American sailors misplaced at sea will now have closure: the usS. Grayback has lastly been discovered.

It was hidden from discovery all this time by a single errant digit.

The thriller started on Jan. 28, 1944, when the Grayback, one of the profitable American submarines of World Battle II, sailed out of Pearl Harbor for its 10th fight patrol. By late March it was greater than three weeks overdue to return, and the Navy listed the submarine as lacking and presumed misplaced.

After the battle, the Navy tried to piece collectively a complete historical past of the 52 submarines it had misplaced. The historical past, issued in 1949, gave approximate places of the place every submarine had disappeared.

The Grayback was thought to have gone down within the open ocean 100 miles east-southeast of Okinawa. However the Navy had unknowingly relied on a flawed translation of Japanese battle information that received one digit unsuitable within the latitude and longitude of the spot the place the Grayback had most likely met its finish.

The error went undetected till final 12 months, when an novice researcher, Yutaka Iwasaki, was going by the wartime information of the Imperial Japanese Navy base at Sasebo. The information included day by day reviews acquired by radio from the naval air base at Naha, Okinawa — and the entry for Feb. 27, 1944, contained a promising lead.

The report for that day stated {that a} Nakajima B5N carrier-based bomber had dropped a 500-pound bomb on a surfaced submarine, placing simply aft of the conning tower. The sub exploded and sank instantly, and there have been no survivors.

“In that radio report, there’s a longitude and a latitude of the assault, very clearly,” Mr. Iwasaki stated. And it didn’t match what was within the 1949 Navy historical past, not by 100 miles.

Mr. Iwasaki is a methods engineer who lives in Kobe, Japan, and who grew to become fascinated as a youngster with the Japanese service provider ships of World Battle II — four-fifths of which have been sunk throughout the battle, he stated. Uncovering the historical past of these ships essentially introduced him into contact with information on submarines. “For me, discovering U.S. submarines is a part of my exercise to introduce the tragic story of battle,” he stated. “It’s my pastime, and in addition my ardour.”

His work introduced him to the eye of Tim Taylor, an undersea explorer who has got down to discover the wrecks of each American submarine misplaced within the battle. In 2010 he discovered his first submarine, the usS. R-12, off Key West, Fla., the place it sank throughout a coaching train in 1943. He arrange the privately funded Misplaced 52 Challenge to trace down the remainder, counting on expertise that had change into out there solely within the final 10 to 15 years.

Mr. Taylor says that of the 52 misplaced American submarines, 47 are thought of discoverable; the opposite 5 have been run aground or destroyed in identified places.

Mr. Taylor and his spouse, Christine Dennison, have been trying to find these 47, and have begun to deal with those that have been most likely sunk close to Japan.

Via his work in undersea exploration, Mr. Taylor was launched to Don Walsh, a former Navy submariner who, as a lieutenant in 1960, reached the deepest level of any ocean on Earth, within the Mariana Trench close to Guam. Mr. Walsh gave Mr. Taylor his copy of the 1949 Navy historical past, “U.S. Submarine Losses, World Battle II.”

Armed with the data in that guide and Mr. Iwasaki’s discovery, Mr. Taylor and the Misplaced 52 group determined to make a run at discovering the Grayback.

The Grayback’s final patrol was its third underneath the command of Lt. Cmdr. John A. Moore, who had been awarded the Navy Cross for every of the primary two. His third Navy Cross could be awarded posthumously, after the submarine despatched 21,594 tons of Japanese delivery to the underside on its final mission. In all, the Grayback sank greater than a dozen Japanese ships. The Navy considers submarines just like the Grayback to be “nonetheless on patrol.”

Like Commander Moore did 75 years earlier than, Mr. Taylor launched his mission to Okinawa this spring from Hawaii. After they reached Japanese waters in June, he and his group fought by mechanical and electrical issues that bedeviled their mission.

They have been looking an space the place the ocean was 1,400 toes deep, and their foremost search software was a 14-foot-long autonomous underwater car weighing 1000’s of kilos that Mr. Taylor likened to an underwater drone. It might dive to just some hundred toes above the ocean flooring after which spend 24 hours pinging with totally different sonars forwards and backwards throughout about 10 sq. nautical miles. When the drone returned to the mom ship, technicians downloaded its information, utilizing laptop software program to sew all the sonar imagery into one coherent image that they may shortly overview.

“Once you’re on these websites, you are feeling such as you’re one breakdown away from having to go dwelling,” Mr. Taylor stated of the search space. “So on daily basis is treasured.”

On the following to final day of the expedition, the drone reported a malfunction one-third of the way in which by a deliberate 24-hour mission. As they recovered the drone, Mr. Taylor stated, half of his crew began getting the ship able to return to port, considering that the car was more likely to be past fast restore. However Mr. Taylor started reviewing the pictures captured by the drone.

He shortly noticed two anomalies on the ocean flooring, and readied one other of the ship’s remotely operated automobiles to go to the underside. Not like the drone, this one was steered manually from the mom ship, and had high-definition cameras.

In a matter of hours, Mr. Taylor was wanting on the hull of the Grayback and, mendacity about 400 toes away, was the submarine’s deck gun, which had been blown off when the bomb exploded.

“We have been elated,” Mr. Taylor stated. “But it surely’s additionally sobering, as a result of we simply discovered 80 males.” The following day, Mr. Taylor and his crew held a ceremony to recollect the sailors misplaced aboard the ship and known as out their names one after the other.

A type of names was John Patrick King.

His nephew John Bihn, of Wantagh, N.Y., is called after him. Mr. Bihn, who was born three years after the Grayback went down, remembers him as a continuing presence in his maternal grandparents’ dwelling, the place a black-and-white photograph of the submarine hung in the lounge close to a black body holding Mr. King’s Purple Coronary heart medal and quotation. However in his household, the topic of his uncle’s dying was “too unhappy to ask about,” Mr. Bihn stated. “My mom would cry fairly often when you spoke to her about it.”

With no physique to bury, Mr. Bihn’s grandparents, Patrick and Catherine King, memorialized their son on their very own gravestone. Underneath their names, Mr. Binh stated, they’d engraved, “John Patrick King ‘Misplaced in Motion.’”

Mr. Bihn received a textual content message from his sister Katherine Taylor (no relation to Tim Taylor) two weeks in the past, saying the Grayback had been discovered. She had gotten the information from Christine Dennison. “I used to be dumbfounded,” he stated. “I simply couldn’t imagine it.”

“I want my mother and father have been alive to see this, as a result of it will definitely make them very completely satisfied,” he added.

In a video taken by the car that surveyed the wreck, Mr. Binh stated, the digicam tilted upward at one level to indicate the conning tower, and a plaque studying “U.S.S. Grayback” was plain to see.

“It’s like somebody wiped it clear,” Mr. Bihn stated. “It’s prefer it wished to be discovered.”

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What Makes a Song? It’s the Same Recipe in Every Culture

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From the primary soothing lullabies infants hear to the funereal dirges that accompany the deceased, music is a fixture of the human expertise. The most recent findings on the cultural foundation of singing have ascertained that sure track sorts—whether or not lullaby, dance, love or therapeutic melodies—flip up in all cultures. And every sort of track has widespread cross-cultural acoustic options.

By analyzing a database of ethnographic descriptions and recordings of songs from world wide, a analysis group from a number of universities found commonalities in acoustic options equivalent to tone, tempo and pitch. The group of melodies round a hierarchical chord construction—tonality—seems as a standard attribute throughout all cultures included within the database. Music varies extra inside than between cultures, indicating that every makes use of track in the identical social context.

The research tries to come back to grips with the controversy amongst musicologists as as to if track is a common human trait that will have deep evolutionary roots. Darwin thought early hominins sang earlier than they developed language, and sure points of music appreciation seem like hardwired within the human mind. “Music is a organic human perform, like language is,” says Isabelle Peretz, a psychologist on the College of Montreal who was not concerned within the research. “As a consequence, music is a common trait and may exhibit common properties.”

The brand new analysis, revealed Thursday in Science, means that people certainly share a “musical grammar,” says psychologist Samuel Mehr, director of the Harvard Music Lab and the research’s lead writer. “Music is constructed from related, easy constructing blocks the world over,” he says.

Mehr and his colleagues compiled 4,709 written accounts of vocal music made by ethnographers and anthropologists over greater than a century of analysis in 60 societies, and mixed them with a discography of lullabies, love songs, therapeutic songs and dances to create a cross-cultural database they dubbed the Pure Historical past of Tune (NHS), which is out there on-line. They targeted on track as a result of in contrast to instrumental music, singing is unbiased of expertise and has clear organic underpinnings. They selected 4 sorts of songs to investigate: lullabies, therapeutic songs, love songs, and dances.

“Our purpose was to representatively pattern the music that individuals produce world wide,” says research co-author Manvir Singh, an anthropologist at Harvard. “The very first thing we needed to confront was: How do you characterize this music? Ethnomusicologists have rightly critiqued initiatives that use a single scheme, like representing the world’s music in a Western employees as a result of clearly [that] brings every kind of biases.” To keep away from this, Singh says, the group used a set of analytical approaches. They transcribed the songs with Western notation, cataloged them with music data retrieval software program and had 30 knowledgeable musicologists and lots of of laypersons hearken to and make annotations for pleasure and pleasantness and different qualities. They then utilized machine classifiers to check whether or not the identifiable acoustic options of every sort of track predict a track is a lullaby or another in every of the 60 cultures surveyed.

The analyses revealed that music seems in each tradition the researchers noticed, and that songs differ primarily in 3 ways—their formality, religiosity and arousal (or stage of pleasure). These widespread acoustic options predict the context by which a track is utilized in each tradition they studied. Music additionally varies alongside the 2 dimensions of melodic and rhythmic complexity.

“People in all places share some cognitive mechanism that will have developed particularly for music, or they might have developed for mundane functions like analyzing an auditory atmosphere,” Singh says. “On the premise of those cognitive mechanisms, sure songs sound acceptable in sure behavioral contexts.”

The researchers took pains to appropriate for potential biases that any Western ethnographers could have unwittingly dropped at their research of non-Western cultures, and famous different doable constraints on their work: consultants may have introduced their very own preconceptions to the annotation course of, and the information don’t replicate how individuals within the societies included within the research understand tonality of their music.

Some musicologists criticized sure points of the methodology. “Utilizing Western notation to notate examples after which drawing conclusions from these notated scores is a very problematic observe,” says Shannon Dudley, an ethnomusicologist on the College of Washington who was not concerned within the research. “Subtleties of rhythm, subtleties of pitch differentiation, articulation and timbre—there are a number of issues which have a huge effect on the way in which individuals hear music that aren’t there in [Western] notation.” Ève Poudrier, a music theorist on the College of British Columbia who was not concerned within the research, agrees. Poudrier notes that one of many musical options the researchers mapped to behavioral contexts was whether or not the track was in a significant or minor key. “Main [and] minor is one system of classification of scales that truly is correct solely in Western music,” she says.

Mehr says that employees notation was simply one of many 5 strategies the researchers used to investigate the songs. “We discover the identical consequence every of the 5 methods—that type and performance are linked worldwide,” he says. “This means that whereas certainly the transcriptions are lacking out on some data associated to the singing (like timbre, phrases, accompanying devices, and many others.), they’re nonetheless capturing significant details about the vocalizations within the songs.” He additionally says the usage of main or minor keys is “merely concerning the sample of pitches which can be audibly current within the recording. Both they’re current or they’re not, and it’s as much as the information to indicate us whether or not these options are significant by way of the relation between type and performance.” Singh provides that no methodology is ideal, and that the NHS information is all open-access. “We’d be glad for anybody to check our conclusions utilizing an alternate technique,” he says.

W. Tecumseh Fitch, a cognitive biologist on the College of Vienna who was not concerned within the research, co-authored an accompanying commentary in Science. He says the invention that musical traits are widespread in people is per the concept that musicality may be very previous. “Whereas this [study] actually doesn’t verify Darwin’s proto-language speculation, I believe it’s per the concept that music may be very historic certainly in our species,” he says. “It’s wonderful how various it’s, however on the identical time … these commonalities are nonetheless there.”

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Can FaZe Clan Build a Billion-Dollar Business?

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Conventional esports groups, like OpTic, have taken a web page out of FaZe’s playbook. They too try to make extra content material and extra personalities, not simply win video games. 100 Thieves, one other firm looking for to merge gaming and way of life, raised $35 million this summer time.

FaZe Clan’s relative scale, nevertheless, is staggering. FaZe Clan has greater than 7.5 million followers on Instagram alone; 100 Thieves has 571,000. “As a company they’ve obtained this unimaginable community impact,” stated Sundance DiGiovanni, a co-founder of Main League Gaming. “Once they convey somebody in, that particular person sees an explosion on their social channels.”

Like all common college-aged child, FaZe Clan members prefer to have a great time. Some hit the golf equipment on the weekends or attend events hosted by younger Hollywood expertise and fellow YouTube stars. Occasions on the FaZe Clan home itself have turn out to be notorious. Final 12 months, the crew hosted a 900-person occasion with 700 younger ladies. “Marshmello” — he’s an enormous D.J. — “stated it was one of the best occasion he’s ever been to,” Temperrr stated. In October, Banks and a few pals prompted an estimated $30,000 value of harm to a resort room on the Encore at Wynn Las Vegas after a wild night time.

The much less enjoyable aspect is that burnout is a significant concern for on-line creators. Practically all high FaZe Clan members have skilled it. “It’s actually arduous to remain per this stage of labor,” stated FaZe Adapt. “There was a pair moments when it obtained arduous. If I wasn’t posting each day, I used to be filming all day, modifying all night time.”

In late October, FaZe Rain, one of many founding owner-members, posted a collection of alarming messages on Twitter, and slammed fellow members of FaZe Clan for not being there for him. FaZe Rain had beforehand mentioned combating despair, and revealed that he had suffered a “psychological breakdown” that landed him in a psychiatric ward. “I’ve been doing this since I used to be 11 years outdated, man,” he stated on the time, which means making content material for YouTube. Presently his social media output veers between “I really feel like I misplaced myself” and, this week, “All you want is confidence then you are able to do something.”

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Insurers turn to wearable tech to nudge people towards healthier living

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Tanned and with a large grin, Wayne Gono, aged 64, could also be one of many oldest individuals at his household enterprise Relay Plastics — however he and his spouse usually prime the employers’ leaderboard for taking essentially the most steps. The Texan enterprise was one of many first to embrace a programme provided by their well being insurer United which makes use of units such because the Apple Watch to push members into extra bodily exercise.

“My spouse and I, since we’re the elders within the firm, attempt to keep within the prime 5. I can say to the others, I’m one of many oldest guys right here and I’m kicking your butt!” he says laughing.

In addition to the satisfaction of a win over colleagues, members get money in the event that they meet three targets: frequency of motion — getting up and strolling for small intervals typically; depth — no less than one burst of three,000 steps in 30 minutes; and tenacity, finishing 10,000 steps in a day. Assembly every aim helps members earn between $1 and $3.

Gono says he has earned about half his deductible again by retaining energetic, saving cash on the quantity he pays out of pocket for medical care annually. He places the additional money straight right into a “trip fund” for taking his youngsters and grandchildren on vacation.

Well being insurers are turning to wearable units together with the Apple Watch and Fitbit wristbands to encourage staff to have interaction with their very own well being — lengthy earlier than they fall sick. They hope that by harnessing expertise corporations’ experience in find out how to change behaviour, they’ll ship every day nudges that make individuals more healthy and — down the road — save prices.

Saturday, 9 November, 2019

There are challenges: from making certain the programmes attain the least match, not simply those that had been already exercising, to assuaging fears on privateness and knowledge safety, notably when an employer is paying for the insurance coverage.

But when overcome, such measures may remedy a number of the largest issues in power care. Weight problems — one of many many damaging outcomes of a sedentary way of life — is the second-leading reason for preventable loss of life, behind smoking, within the US. It value the US healthcare system about $147bn in 2008, in response to the Facilities for Illness Management. Estimates of the fee to all the US economic system due to misplaced productiveness vary from $3.4bn to $6.4bn.

Medical doctors have lengthy recognized that their sufferers must train extra — however it has been far simpler to prescribe drugs than bodily exercise. JoAnn Manson, chief of the preventive drugs division at Brigham and Girls’s Hospital in Boston, says train is “as near a magic bullet as we’ve are available in fashionable drugs”.

She has advisable that train be thought-about an “extra important signal” — alongside the traditional 4 of blood stress, pulse, respiratory price and temperature. Medical doctors ought to ask about train each go to, she believes.

“I do admire clinicians are extraordinarily busy within the workplace with a whole lot of calls for. It is vitally rushed. Nonetheless, that is an intervention that might in the end cut back the danger of most of the power illnesses which have such excessive prices, a serious human burden and toll on the inhabitants,” she says.

Manson says insurers’ incentive programmes may very well be used to encourage extra bodily exercise — but in addition that there must be extra analysis on how efficient they’re.

Wednesday, 28 November, 2018

United Healthcare launched its programme in January 2018. Paul Sterling, vice-president of rising merchandise for the corporate, stated it was already saving about $220 per member in medical prices annually, evaluating individuals who take part within the programme with individuals who don’t.

“The underlying thesis is straightforward. It’s not new: motion or movement as drugs,” he says. “The fantastic thing about the programme is that it does present a day-after-day alternative for reinforcement and assist.”

United is now find out how to embody actions comparable to swimming, biking and even gardening, in order that individuals are rewarded for all sorts of train.

Discovery, a South African well being insurer and proprietor of Vitality, pioneered this kind of effort. Francois Millard, senior vice-president and chief actuarial officer at Vitality Group, stated the venture was initially modelled on airline frequent-flyer programmes. The insurer realised it was “uniquely located to profit if our members get more healthy” — so it ought to share the upsides with individuals.

Tuesday, 24 September, 2019

A examine by analysis institute Rand Europe of greater than 422,000 Vitality members within the UK, US and South Africa, from 2015 to 2018, discovered that members of the rewards programme with the Apple Watch had been energetic for an additional 5 days a month. Maybe predictably, the examine discovered that unhealthy individuals had been a lot much less more likely to take up a programme like this. However, importantly, it discovered that after they did, they did so with gusto, displaying a “extra pronounced behaviour change”.

Vitality used behavioural economics to design its programme. Members obtain a reduced Apple Watch, however should pay the complete value if they don’t meet their objectives — albeit interest-free. Persons are extra averse to shedding cash than to potential features, so it’s a robust nudge to vary their behaviour.

The programme additionally borrows methods from the tech trade which have been proven to have interaction customers extra, comparable to unsure rewards. Similar to a Fb person refreshes their information feed often as a result of she or he will not be positive what may seem subsequent (or a gambler will get excited for his or her subsequent sport), if a member meets their objectives, they will spin a wheel the place they may win present playing cards price something from $5 to $25.

The apparent aim of those programmes is making members extra energetic — and due to this fact more healthy. However many insurers are additionally involved in programmes as a result of they construct a better relationship with members, who normally simply work together with them when they need a invoice to be paid. This added engagement could make members really feel extra loyal and can provide the insurer alternatives to nudge them into different wholesome practices.

Oscar Well being, an insurance coverage start-up backed by enterprise capitalists together with Google Ventures, put a step monitoring perform in its app to make sure members come again every day. Oscar provides its members a concierge group to reply questions and direct them to suppliers that supply the perfect worth for cash. It additionally encourages individuals to make use of telemedicine the place doable.

Sara Wajnberg, chief product officer for the New York-based firm, stated the unique intention was to supply “enjoyable, gamified objectives”, the place members can earn rewards of as much as $100 in Amazon present playing cards a 12 months. Nevertheless it additionally helps them appropriate perceptions that insurers are only a “billing interface” into seeing them as an “entry level into all the healthcare system”.

Members obtain a reduced Apple Watch — however should pay the complete value if they don’t meet their objectives

Oscar discovered that 87 per cent of members who tracked their steps engaged with the concierge group and telemedicine, in contrast with 57 per cent of the full membership. The corporate additionally believes it encourages members, who purchase the insurance coverage on an open market reasonably than being provided it by an employer, to stay with them.

Aetna, the medical insurance arm of US pharmacy chain CVS, goes even additional, placing extra healthcare companies in its Attain wellness app. Utilizing an Apple Watch, Aetna members are given private exercise objectives and fed notifications together with reminders to get vaccinations, refill prescriptions and go to their primary-care physician in the event that they haven’t not too long ago. If wanted, they’re additionally nudged in the direction of cheaper choices for assessments and scans.

Ben Wanamaker, head of client expertise and companies at Aetna, stated the thought was to “cut back the friction” for customers. He stated employers recognised Aetna had these “distinctive capabilities” to have interaction members.

“They’re key prospects and in lots of instances they’ve shared issues about what to do in regards to the medical prices and the effectiveness of their staff,” he stated. “You don’t should be acutely sick to be lower than your finest healthwise so Attain helps individuals get higher and be more practical at work and residential.”

Aetna is now working with Apple to make use of machine studying to enhance the way it personalises the product. Members can select to ship their programme knowledge and well being historical past to Apple, which is able to use it to create new options.

Andrew Matzkin, a associate on the consultancy Well being Advances, stated Apple may benefit from these programmes within the brief time period by means of bulk gross sales of the Apple Watch — however in the long term they may inform Apple’s personal ambitions in healthcare.

He says one of many largest questions is whether or not Apple desires to make use of its shops to create high-tech clinics — a form of Genius Bar for the physique. The corporate already owns AC Wellness, a small chain of clinics that serves its staff.

“You possibly can think about Apple saying finally, ‘We all know find out how to create an awesome client expertise in individual, in retail, and we may mix it to supply extra digitally-enabled main care’,” he says.

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