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Why did coffee cups and soda cups get so big?

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There’s extra money in it for the Comfort Industrial Complicated.

After I was a child at summer season camp, we drank out of inexperienced glass mugs. So when my spouse and I obtained a cabin within the woods and stocked it with housewares from the shed on the dump, I used to be thrilled to seek out the identical mugs, and drink out of them each day. I additionally discovered cups and saucers from the 50s.

However they’re additionally actually small by at the moment’s requirements. The cup with saucer holds four ounces, the inexperienced mug 6. The 80s classic purple mug holds seven, and the large one holds 8.

Till lately, the largest espresso container I ever noticed was the bowl of Cafe au lait that I purchased each morning in Paris throughout my summer season journey there throughout College. I did not have a lot cash, however there was sufficient milk in that bowl that I obtained all of the espresso and energy that I wanted to final till lunch. As a result of 16 ounces of milk and occasional was 320 energy, a complete meal.

If you went to eating places and occasional retailers the place you sat on the counter, you bought your espresso in a six ounce cup. Eating places need turnover, and if you happen to make the espresso cup greater, folks take longer to drink and longer to go away. Then got here the disposable espresso cup of the early sixties and every little thing modified.

Based on Michael Y. Park, quoted in Feast, “The Golden Age of the disposable espresso cup appears to have been the 60s, when 4 main issues occurred: the froth cup, the Anthora cup, the tearable lid, and 7-Eleven.” Graham Hill’s We Are Completely satisfied To Serve You website explains:

The “Anthora” paper cup designed in 1963, options Greek motifs and two shields on that are written “WE ARE HAPPY TO SERVE YOU”. Tens of millions of those cups had fed the caffeine addictions of New Yorkers throughout all these years. The sheer variety of them coupled with their forty-year historical past has given the cup icon standing together with the yellow taxis and the Statue of Liberty.

7-Eleven grew to become the primary comfort retailer to promote espresso in a takeaway cup.

Beforehand, taking your beverage out of a retailer was not doable. Consider a comfortable espresso store that performs indie music and is thought for his or her latte artwork. You in all probability go there to take a seat down, benefit from the ambiance and drink your espresso. Earlier than 1964, this was the one possibility.

It was a really good round economic system, the place the great little cup obtained crammed, drunk, washed and refilled. However as soon as it went linear, the place the purchaser takes the cup out of the shop, how lengthy the client took to drink it did not matter, and distributors might hold cranking the dimensions and cranking the revenue.

That is the place the Comfort Industrial Complicated will get busy, from the paper and plastics corporations that make the one use disposables, to the automotive producers who had been completely happy to tun their merchandise into cell eating rooms, to the waste administration and recycling business that picks up after us.

Starbucks, for instance, would not even put an Eight ounce cup on their worth listing, it’s a must to ask for a “brief.” 12 ounces is just about the usual, and naturally there may be the Grand at 16 and the Venti at 20. Folks now drink my total French breakfast as they drive or stroll.

And so the comfort Industrial Complicated wins once more. They offload their actual property prices to your automotive, their waste administration to the taxpayer who picks up the rubbish, and make ever better income from the ever better sizes.

The story of soda pop is much more excessive, with 7-Eleven main the way in which once more. Based on Annabelle Smith within the Smithsonian, It launched the Huge Gulp in 1976 on the suggestion of Coca-cola reps. It began in Orange County as a take a look at, as a result of a doubtful product supervisor, Dennis Potts, thought it was “too rattling massive.”

It was a Tuesday after they launched the brand new cup measurement. They put up a hand-crafted signal that learn: “39 cents, No Deposit.” That following Monday, the franchise referred to as Potts in Dallas asking for extra cups. “As soon as we heard we offered 500 cups in every week, we obtained the message canine gone quick,” Potts says. “We moved as shortly as we might to get this factor out. It simply took off like gangbusters.”

That led to the Tremendous Huge Gulp at 46 ounces, the self-serve dispenser to off-load labor prices to the purchasers, and finally a 64 ounce Double Gulp that Ellen DeGeneres stated would hold you going for “six weeks within the desert.”

In fact, this has contributed to the weight problems disaster and the waste administration disaster, however it’s all oh so handy, to have folks purchase large cups, fill them themselves, after which simply throw it away.

Readers will little doubt remark once more that the businesses are simply giving folks what they need, however it would not work that method. They worth the drinks to encourage bigger sizes by making it a lot cheaper per ounce in bigger volumes, however actually, who of their proper thoughts and physique can drink 64 ounces of pop? If it was packed in refillable glass bottles, you in all probability could not raise the factor to your mouth.

In the event that they took the comfort out of it by banning single-use containers, so folks both needed to convey their very own or keep within the store to drink it, or the corporate owned the container and needed to take it again, wash it and reuse it, I think it will all standardize round smaller parts in a single day. No person needs to hold a bucket.

There’s extra money in it for the Comfort Industrial Complicated.

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Sustainability

Electric cars won’t save us, says new UK parliamentary report; get a bike instead

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It requires extra help of bikes, strolling and transit, banning ICE-powered vehicles sooner.

Writing in Forbes, Carlton Reid factors to a captivating report from the UK Home of Commons Science and Expertise Committee (PDF right here), applied sciences for assembly the UK’s emissions discount targets. Reid quotes the examine:

“Within the long-term, widespread private automobile possession doesn’t look like suitable with vital decarbonization,” says the blistering parliamentary report.

There are a lot of issues to admire on this examine, which covers energy era, transport, heating and extra, beginning with the make-up of the committee. (We are going to have a look at the heating and vitality suggestions subsequent.) In Canada or the USA, the place supporting the fossil gas trade is authorities coverage #1, you’d by no means get 4 completely different events agreeing to one thing like this. You could not even get them to agree on the truth that local weather change is an issue. As an alternative you get highly effective stuff proper within the abstract, particularly with respect to move:

The transport sector is now the largest-emitting sector of the UK financial system. The Authorities ought to deliver ahead the proposed ban on gross sales of latest standard vehicles and vans to 2035 on the newest. This ban ought to explicitly cowl hybrid in addition to inside combustion engines. There are vital emissions related to the manufacture of automobiles. Within the long-term, widespread private automobile possession doesn’t look like suitable with vital decarbonisation. The Authorities shouldn’t goal to attain emissions reductions just by changing present automobiles with lower-emissions variations.

Alongside the Authorities’s present targets and insurance policies, it should develop a technique to stimulate a low-emissions transport system, with the metrics and targets to match. This could goal to scale back the variety of automobiles required, for instance by: selling and enhancing public transport; decreasing its value relative to non-public transport; encouraging automobile usership instead of possession; and inspiring and supporting elevated ranges of strolling and biking.

Reid writes that there’s “little consolation within the report for electrical bicycle followers both as a result of the committee warns that the uncommon minerals required for electrical automobile batteries are quick operating out and are sourced from unstable international locations with dire information on staff’ rights.” (It is a level we’ve made earlier than.)

As far as I can discover, the report by no means truly mentions e-bikes besides within the dialogue of last-mile e-cargo bikes, however it does focus on the issues of fabric sources required for electrical batteries, and that there are “many long-term provide questions within the context of a booming trade, unanswered”.

Gazelle under the bentwayGazell Medeo on the Bentway Park/ Lloyd Alter/CC BY 2.0

However severely, if you wish to give individuals who drive an alternate, e-bikes are usually not a nasty choice. If the quantity of uncommon earths and lithium are proportional to the scale of the battery, then my .four kw/hr Bosch battery on the again of my Gazelle makes use of 1/75th as a lot as a Nissan Leaf and 1/250th of a Tesla Mannequin S with a 100 kw/hr battery, which is an excellent purpose to advertise e-bikes; they sip lithium by comparability to vehicles. If something, the report provides quite a lot of consolation to e-bike followers like me.

The report makes clear that “one vital consider customers’ choices to buy a automobile or not could be the supply, high quality and price of public transport, various choices corresponding to strolling and biking, and automotive share schemes.” We all know this from in all places: if folks haven’t got transit options which can be shut, reasonably priced and common, they’ll drive. If they can not stroll or bike as a result of there are not any protected and direct routes, they’ll drive.

That is one purpose we get so annoyed with good massive money rebates some governments give to individuals who purchase electrical vehicles, whereas giving nothing to different approaches that may get folks out of vehicles. Or why transit fares maintain going up, however gas taxes by no means do. The report truly means that “the Authorities ought to commit to making sure that the annual enhance in gas obligation ought to by no means be decrease than the typical enhance in rail or bus fares.”

I’ve mentioned it time and again: Electrical vehicles will not save us. I am relieved to see the Home of Commons Science and Tech committee is saying that, too.

Electrical vehicles will not save us, says new UK parliamentary report; get a motorcycle as a substitute

It requires extra help of bikes, strolling and transit, banning ICE-powered vehicles sooner.

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Sustainability

Amazon on fire: ‘The earth isn’t dying. It’s being killed.’

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The Amazon rainforest would not want prayers, it wants protectors.

The Amazon rainforest has hit a brand new document – and never the great form. With 72,843 fires detected thus far this 12 months by Brazil’s Nationwide Institute for Area analysis (INPE), it’s the highest variety of fires within the nation since data started in 2013. The rise marks an 83 p.c surge over the identical interval in 2018.

CNN experiences that consultants consider the wildfires have been set by cattle ranchers and loggers who need to clear and make the most of the land, emboldened by the nation’s right-wing, pro-business president, Jair Bolsonaro. As Reuters notes, “the unprecedented surge in wildfires has occurred since Bolsonaro took workplace in January vowing to develop the Amazon area for farming and mining, ignoring worldwide concern over elevated deforestation.” Dan Fairly agrees.

The Amazon is on fireplace! The story ought to prime headlines. If we’ve any hope averting the worst of the local weather disaster we’d like a wholesome Amazon rainforest. However Brazil’s right-wing President Bolsonaro encourages short-sighted exploitation on the expense of the well being of the planet.

— Dan Fairly (@DanRather) August 22, 2019

Yesterday, Lloyd wrote a submit titled, “There are not any local weather deniers anymore. At this level, they’re all local weather arsonists and nihilists.” In the meantime, right this moment, I got here throughout an Instagram submit with video by Paul Rosolie, who’s in Brazil proper now. It begins with this quote:

The earth isn’t dying. It’s being killed.

Lloyd and Paul are on the identical web page. The devastation that is taking place to life on the planet shouldn’t be a passive factor; we’re actively destroying all of it. That is no shock to anybody who has been paying consideration, however it’s a narrative of which we must be listening to extra.

Paul is a naturalist, explorer, writer, and award-winning wildlife filmmaker who’s an professional on the Amazon. For the previous decade he has specialised in threatened ecosystems and species in international locations like Indonesia, Brazil, India, and Peru. Within the Amazon, Paul has described new ecosystems and his memoir on Amazonian wildlife and exploration, “Mom of God: An Extraordinary Journey into the Uncharted Tributaries of the Western Amazon,” has garnered essential acclaim.

There was plenty of ink this week on the Amazon fires – in the meantime, #PrayforAmazonia and numerous iterations thereof have been trending on social media. However Paul was form sufficient to allow us to share his Instagram submit – the footage and his textual content is actually to the purpose and expresses issues far more urgently than I can do from a desk in Brooklyn. He wrote:

“On the bottom footage of the Amazon burning. You possibly can see the clouds of smoke blocking out the solar, swallowing the jungle. You can not think about what’s being misplaced. The unimaginable complexity of historical timber and wildlife… The self-sustaining moisture cycle of the Amazon has its limits. Make no mistake: the destiny of the surroundings is the defining concern of our time. It transcends tradition, economic system, political borders, ideology – as a result of as a worldwide society all of us rely on this method for all times.”

This is the submit. Watch out for an F-bomb in there, well-placed as it could be. (And if the video would not show in your browser, I encourage you to click on the hyperlink to Instagram to view it.)

President Bolsonaro says that the nation lacks the sources to struggle the fires. How handy. (Hey, possibly they simply want rakes.) The planet goes to hell in a handbasket, and humankind solely has itself accountable. What’s it going to take to show this catastrophe round? Are oil and unique timber and hamburgers all actually definitely worth the demise of life on Earth?

Learn extra uplifting information right here: Large new report proves that people are the worst species.

Amazon on fireplace: ‘The earth isn’t dying. It’s being killed.’

The Amazon rainforest would not want prayers, it wants protectors.

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Sustainability

Lawsuit filed over awful changes to Endangered Species Act

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Environmental and animal safety teams have sued the administration over the Trump-Bernhardt ‘extinction plan.’

The non-human animals haven’t had one of the best time with the human ones; it seems that mankind has a dismal behavior of wiping out species. Fortunately, we appear to have come to our senses considerably within the final century or so. Like, we stopped obliterating whales for oil and stopped slaughtering majestic birds for hat feathers, yay us. Conservation and wildlife safety acts have been enormously useful in protecting man’s folly at bay.

A type of acts is the Endangered Species Preservation Act (ESA), which Congress handed in 1966 as a strategy to checklist native animal species as endangered and provides them safety. As non-profit public curiosity group Earthjustice explains, “…the Endangered Species Act aspires to forestall extinction, get better imperiled vegetation and animals, and defend the ecosystems on which they rely.”

The ESA has been a really profitable legislation for safeguarding imperiled species and their habitats. Within the many years because it was enacted, 99 p.c of listed species – together with the bald eagle, Florida manatee, and the grey wolf – have been saved from extinction.

Sadly, the Trump administration has created new rules that dramatically weaken the Endangered Species Act. As Earthjustice notes of the rollbacks:

“Amongst different issues, they permit consideration of financial components in choices about whether or not species are listed as threatened or endangered, strip newly listed threatened species of computerized safety, weaken safety of species’ vital habitat, and calm down session requirements that are supposed to guarantee federal companies keep away from jeopardizing species’ survival.”

U.S. Division of the Inside Secretary, David Bernhardt, oversaw the creation of the brand new guidelines. On condition that Bernhardt is a former lobbyist for Huge Oil and Huge Ag, amongst different particular pursuits, the brand new skill to think about financial components in choices is particularly unnerving.

With all of this in thoughts, Earthjustice has filed a lawsuit on behalf of Middle for Organic Variety, Defenders of Wildlife, Sierra Membership, Pure Sources Protection Council, Nationwide Parks Conservation Affiliation, WildEarth Guardians, and the Humane Society of the US.

“Trump’s guidelines are a dream-come-true for polluting industries and a nightmare for endangered species,” mentioned Noah Greenwald, endangered species director on the Middle for Organic Variety. “Scientists world wide are sounding the alarm about extinction, however the Trump administration is eradicating safeguards for the nation’s endangered species. We’ll do all the things in our energy to cease these guidelines from going ahead.”

The lawsuit makes three claims towards the administration’s new guidelines:

1. The Trump administration didn’t publicly disclose and analyze the harms and impacts of those guidelines, in violation of the Nationwide Environmental Coverage Act.

2. The administration inserted new modifications into the ultimate guidelines that have been by no means made public and never topic to public remark, chopping the American individuals out of the decision-making course of.

3. The administration violated the language and goal of the Endangered Species Act by unreasonably altering necessities for compliance with Part 7, which requires federal companies to make sure that actions they authorize, fund, or perform don’t jeopardize the existence of any species listed, or destroy or adversely modify designated vital habitat of any listed species.

And that is simply the primary half of what’s going to be a bigger authorized problem. There shall be extra claims associated to ESA Part 4, together with the brand new rule injecting financial issues into itemizing choices and the rule eliminating computerized protections for newly-listed threatened species.

“Within the face of a world extinction disaster, the Trump administration has undercut the Endangered Species Act, one among our most profitable environmental legal guidelines. This motion is clearly supposed to learn builders and extractive industries, not species, and we’re going to courtroom to cease it. The overwhelming majority of Individuals need to make sure that threatened and endangered species are protected for future generations,” mentioned Senior Endangered Species Counsel for Defenders of Wildlife Jason Rylander.

In contrast to straws and hamburgers, defending endangered animals seems to be an concept that each side of the tradition battle agree on. Earthjustice notes {that a} Tulchin Analysis ballot confirmed that 90 p.c of voters help the Act, together with 96 p.c of self-identified liberals and 82 p.c of self-identified conservatives. And in line with a 2018 examine by researchers at The Ohio State College, roughly 4 out of 5 Individuals help the Endangered Species Act.

“The general public overwhelmingly helps the ESA, which has succeeded in saving humpback whales, bald eagles, and greater than 99 p.c of listed species from the brink of extinction,” mentioned Nicholas Arrivo, Workers Legal professional for the Humane Society of the US. “This package deal of regulatory modifications prioritizes trade earnings over the very existence of imperiled species.”

We’re at present going through a probably cataclysmic extinction disaster and as such, defending vegetation and wildlife is extra vital than ever. Are we actually going to let Huge Trade and a callous administration destroy what’s left? We shall be following this story…

Environmental and animal safety teams have sued the administration over the Trump-Bernhardt ‘extinction plan.’

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