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Climate Change

Why Solar Activity And Cosmic Rays Can’t Explain Global Warming



As a local weather scientist, I hear my share of myths about what’s inflicting local weather change or why it’s a “hoax.” I name them “zombie theories” as a result of they only is not going to die. They persist in blogs, sure networks, and social media like zombies lengthy after scientists have killed them off. I debunked 20 of them in a earlier article in Forbes. The “solar and its variability” is one which makes the rounds. I’m fairly certain I’ve needed to spray “local weather science repellent” on that nagging “mosquito” quite a few instances. This week I heard of a variation of this fantasy involving cosmic rays. Here’s a science-based debunking of the solar-cosmic ray fantasy.

Sunset in Hannover

08 August 2019, Decrease Saxony, Hanover: The solar units behind the skyline of Hannover with the Aegidienkirche. Photograph: Christophe Gateau/dpa (Photograph by Christophe Gateau/image alliance through Getty Photographs)

image alliance through Getty Photographs

I will not spend time highlighting any specific zombie concept in regards to the Solar or cosmic rays. It’s extra helpful to “reduce to the chase” on why the Solar would not clarify local weather warming. The graphic under from a NASA local weather web site is the idea for the dialogue. Photo voltaic power is an important a part of our weather-climate system, however I discover that some folks haven’t got a transparent understanding of its function.

There may be false impression that as a result of we really feel warmth from the Solar and see it within the sky it represents how Earth’s floor is warmed always. It’s really much more sophisticated. The Earth has an environment with comparatively small quantities of greenhouse gases like carbon dioxide, methane, and water vapor. Nevertheless, do not be crammed by “comparatively small” as a result of they’re essential. Colorado State College professor Scott Denning usually says, “We survive each night time due to the Greenhouse Impact.” His level is that with out the system of gases absorbing and re-emitting longwave radiation (warmth) it could be too chilly to outlive. The shortwave radiation from the Solar is simply a part of the story (learn extra at this hyperlink at Forbes on how the Greenhouse Impact really works).

temperature vs solar activity

Temperature vs photo voltaic exercise


The power from the Solar varies, and the 11-year sunspot cycle is a main driver. In accordance with a NASA web site,

The full photo voltaic irradiance (TSI), improperly referred to as “photo voltaic fixed” till a number of years in the past, has been discovered to alter about 0.1% in an 11-year photo voltaic sunspot exercise. The present most correct TSI values from the Complete Irradiance Monitor (TIM) on NASA’s Photo voltaic Radiation and Local weather Experiment ( SORCE ) is 1360.8 ± 0.5 Watts per meter squared throughout the 2008 photo voltaic minimal as in comparison with earlier estimates of 1365.4 ± 1.three W/m2 established within the 1990s.

NASA Science and Analysis Portal

This variation in photo voltaic power is well-known however would not clarify world temperature tendencies. NASA’s International Local weather Change web site factors out two smoking weapons that debunk the overused “it is the solar” fantasy:

One of many “smoking weapons” that tells us the Solar will not be inflicting world warming comes from wanting on the quantity of the Solar’s power that hits the highest of the ambiance. Since 1978, scientists have been monitoring this utilizing sensors on satellites and what they inform us is that there was no upward pattern within the quantity of the Solar’s power reaching Earth.

NASA International Local weather Change web site

The opposite smoking gun is expounded to the place the warming is happening. The NASA web site makes the purpose that “if the Solar had been accountable for world warming, we’d count on to see warming all through all layers of the ambiance, from the floor all the best way as much as the higher ambiance (stratosphere).” In actuality, warming is being noticed on the floor, however there’s cooling within the stratospheric area. To anybody that has studied climatology and never astrophysics, this can be a “clear as a bell” sign that warming is expounded to greenhouse gases within the troposphere relatively than the solar getting “hotter” or different hypotheses. Dr. Jeff Masters does a “masterful” job explaining why this occurs at Climate Underground.

The galactic cosmic rays (GCRs) fantasy is our subsequent “debunk” goal. It argues that GCRSs “seed” clouds so if there are fewer cosmic rays then there might be much less world cloud cowl to replicate the Solar’s power. The Skeptical Science web site, a wonderful scientist-run effort, debunks local weather myths. This is what it says in regards to the cosmic ray concept:

The physique of scientific analysis has decided that GCRs are literally not very efficient at seeding clouds. Nevertheless, the speculation can be disproven simply by inspecting the info. Over the previous 5 a long time, the variety of GCRs reaching Earth has elevated, and lately reached file excessive numbers. Which means if the GCR-warming speculation is appropriate, this enhance in GCRs ought to really be inflicting world cooling over the previous 5 a long time, and significantly chilly temperatures lately.
Quite the opposite, whereas GCRs are up, world temperatures are additionally approach up, and temperatures lately reached file highs.

Skeptical Science

Even in a 2017 article on this subject, scientists admitted that there was fairly a little bit of hypothesis on this GCR concept.

I usually use an the analogy of an apple pie. Apples are a very powerful ingredient within the pie although some random particular person would possibly argue for cinnamon or sugar. Within the local weather system, this well-understood local weather graphic illustrates that greenhouse gases are a very powerful ingredient within the local weather radiative pie.

Bon Appetit

climate-radiative forcing.

The components that heat or cool the local weather system.

EPA web site

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Climate Change

Predictions of global warming have been around for some time | Letter



Scientists have warned us for years of the dire penalties of worldwide warming. Edgar Cayce (1877-1945), “The Sleeping Prophet,“ made predictions, identified sicknesses, prescribed therapies, and many others., whereas in a self-induced trance and had no reminiscence of them afterwards. He thought of his capability a non secular reward and by no means profited from it. All his periods have been documented and are a matter of document on many web websites.

A 1930s prediction appears significantly ominous. He predicted that within the 21st century, excessive warming within the arctic would trigger oceans to rise, with volcanic eruptions and earthquakes inflicting a shift within the continents on their tectonic plates (which has occurred prior to now), tropics turning into arctic and vice versa. He really drew a map of the U.S. after the occasion which reveals California disappearing into the ocean. Florida and lots of southern East Coast states might be gone. New York Metropolis might be submerged, new land plenty will rise in each oceans and the Nice Lakes will converge right into a single river, inflicting unimaginable destruction. Japan can be fully submerged.

There may be geographical proof of comparable tectonic occasions prior to now — sea shells and marine fossils present in deserts and on mountain tops, in addition to undersea deserts and mountains. These all foreboding omens.

With the present excessive polar melting and will increase in volcanic exercise and earthquakes, let’s hope President Trump (in his self-professed knowledge in all issues) is right and that is only a Chinese language hoax — and that Edgar Cayce was flawed.

Ron Pizarie

East Allen Township

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Climate Change

Scientists Say We Need These 6 Things For Us to Meet Our Climate Goals



Our planet is in a good spot. We’re not hitting the targets we all know we have to hit, and we’re breaking all of the flawed sorts of information. What’s it going to take for us to get out of this mess?


Researchers have lengthy identified the solutions, at the least on a purely scientific entrance: we have to section out our reliance on fossil fuels to get rid of the extreme manufacturing of heat-trapping chemical compounds increase in our ambiance.

However how will we try this? What would it not seem like? This a part of the puzzle just isn’t so nicely explored: the social dynamics and shifts that would wish to happen for society to shake off its harmful inertia and really realise our objectives of a protected, steady local weather.

We now have some new leads on this. In a brand new examine, a world crew of scientists and local weather change consultants investigated what these ‘tipping mechanisms’ might be, figuring out six components they are saying may spark societal change in the direction of local weather stabilisation and planetary sustainability.

“From the power sector to monetary markets to our cities – we had been in a position to pin down social tipping components and establish concrete interventions which may activate contagious processes of quickly spreading applied sciences, behavioural patterns, and social norms,” says sociologist and economist Ilona M. Otto from the Potsdam Institute for Local weather Impression Analysis (PIK) in Germany.

In a multi-faceted examine that drew upon workshopping, surveying, and an evaluation of scientific and tutorial literature, the researchers examined the weather most probably to assist society restrict international warming by transitioning to a carbon-neutral state by 2050.


Whereas the researchers acknowledge the tipping mechanisms they’ve recognized will not be any type of full checklist, they nonetheless may function a roadmap to attain “speedy socio-economic transformation pathways and discover narratives for a decarbonised future in 2050,” Otto says.

In line with the analysis, the social tipping interventions that would assist us do that could be:

eradicating fossil-fuel subsidies and incentivising decentralised power technology;
constructing carbon-neutral cities;
divesting from belongings linked to fossil fuels;
revealing the ethical implications of fossil fuels;
strengthening local weather training and engagement; and
disclosing info on greenhouse gasoline emissions.

In fact, many of those mechanisms are already in course of and evident in society to a point, however whether or not any have but reached a tipping level resulting in a speedy societal transformation is debatable.

Nonetheless, the researchers see optimistic indicators, highlighting the phenomenon of faculty college students conducting local weather strikes.

“The motion is inflicting ‘irritations’ in private world views and thus could be altering peoples’ norms and values and the methods of considering and performing, probably resulting in modifications in insurance policies and rules, infrastructure improvement, in addition to particular person consumption and life-style choices,” the authors write of their paper.


The worth of such realisations and modifications, nonetheless, must be tied to broader shifts in society, enterprise, and governance, to cut back friction hindering adoption of carbon-neutral life.

“Consciousness of worldwide warming is excessive however social norms to basically shift behaviour will not be,” says PIK’s director, Johan Rockström.

“This can be a mismatch that science alone can’t repair. For people to dwell a carbon-free life-style should be made simple… however on the long run a brand new social equilibrium is required wherein local weather safety is recognised as a social norm, in any other case shocks on the monetary markets or financial crises may destroy progress in decarbonisation.”

For us to succeed, the researchers say we want “contagious dynamics” that unfold exponentially and concurrently inside society, politics, and the economic system.

It is quite a bit to hope for, the world the best way it’s, nevertheless it’s one thing that should occur, the researchers say.

In any case, there are other forms of tipping factors already being triggered across the planet, and they aren’t the type we need to see.

The findings are reported in PNAS.


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Climate Change

Davos 2020: Calls to climate action and everything else you may have missed



Over the previous few days, reviews and bulletins round sustainability have been launched at a tempo, as greater than 3,00zero enterprise leaders, policymakers and thought leaders and Invoice Nye gathered in Davos for the World Financial Discussion board (WEF). This round-up highlights the important thing inexperienced speaking factors that you might want to know.

Pictured clockwise from top left: The Congress Centre; plastics campaigner Melati Wijsen; activist Greta Thunberg and UN Secretary-General Antonio Guterres.

Pictured clockwise from prime left: The Congress Centre; plastics campaigner Melati Wijsen; activist Greta Thunberg and UN Secretary-Normal Antonio Guterres.

The intention of the summit is to co-create options to among the world’s most urgent environmental and socio-economic challenges and to present attendees a platform on which to make recent bulletins or commitments in these fields.

Finally yr’s occasion, discussions across the round economic system took centre-stage, with a lot time devoted to how and why companies and nations ought to handle the necessity to design out waste and preserve sources within the economic system.

Right here, edie rounds up all the important thing sustainability bulletins from this yr’s Discussion board.

Earlier than the Discussion board

In preparation for the summit, the WEF launched its annual international danger report, because it has executed for 15 years. For the primary time within the evaluation’ historical past, the highest 5 dangers by way of probability and severity had been climate-related. No dangers thought-about solely financial made the report’s prime ten.

The WEF has referred to as this shift away from financial danger dominating its charts as “worrying, given the persevering with international financial malaise that can restrict progress in all different areas, together with local weather motion”.

However key voices throughout the inexperienced economic system had been fast to focus on the report’s significance to policymakers, traders and corporates, expressing hopes that its local weather focus would unfold.

Then, the day earlier than the Discussion board started, the WEF referred to as on all companies attending the occasion to set net-zero targets and techniques, in step with – or forward of – a 2050 deadline. The Discussion board famous that emissions are growing by 1.5% yearly, far off the 3-6% required annual discount between now and 2030 to restrict international warming to a minimum of 2C, in accordance with the Intergovernmental Panel on Local weather Change (IPCC).

The likes of Greta Thunberg and Ursula von der Layen additionally issued statements or gave interviews forward of the Discussion board. Thunberg vowed to make use of her platform to encourage a shift away from fossil fuels.

Elsewhere, Signify highlighted the work it had accomplished to make Davos extra sustainable operationally. For the reason that 2019 Discussion board, the Congress Centre has diminished its carbon emissions by 82% by investing in vitality effectivity applied sciences and low-carbon vitality.

Day One

The most important inexperienced announcement at Day One of many Discussion board was the publication of the second ‘Circularity Hole’ report – a bit of analysis showcasing how enterprise and authorities motion thus far has helped and hindered progress in the direction of a round economic system. Produced by Dutch think-tank Circle Financial system, the report concluded that greater than 100 billion tonnes of sources at the moment are being extracted from Earth globally, and that lower than 9% of those sources are reused.

Circle Financial system used its platform to name for the introduction of nationwide round economic system “roadmaps”, bolstered by insurance policies designed to make the enterprise case for reuse and recycling stronger. 

One other main report got here from the Worldwide Vitality Company (IEA), documenting the oil and gasoline sector’s strategy to the low-carbon transition. A key discovering was that lower than 1% of the investments collectively made by the sector in 2018 went in the direction of low-carbon actions similar to constructing renewable vitality infrastructure or putting in carbon seize, utilization and storage (CCUS) applied sciences.

Moreover, President Trump arrived on the summit to tout the US’s progress round fields similar to clear vitality and job creation – regardless of his administration’s determination to depart the Paris Settlement. He confronted backlash after calling local weather activists “prophets of doom”.


Elsewhere, Lloyd’s Banking Group pledged to halve the carbon emissions generated by tasks it funds by 2030, whereas a string of 24 different banks had been criticised by Greenpeace for attending the Discussion board to speak sustainability whereas funnelling billions into fossil gas tasks.

Day Two

The second day of the Discussion board noticed Greta Thunberg take to the stage to ship her first public speeches since COP25 in Madrid final month.

The teenage activist from Sweden as soon as once more urged leaders to “unite behind the science” detailed within the IPCC’s landmark report on international warming, and to “act now” to stop “each fraction of a level” of warming attainable.

Prince Charles met Thunberg after her speech, vowing to make use of his place to “do the utmost” round environmental points. When the Prince took to the stage himself, to launch his Sustainable Markets Initiative and Council, he delivered a rousing name for financial techniques to be reformed on a world scale with the intention to ship advantages to folks and planet.

“What good is all the additional wealth on the planet gained from enterprise as common if you are able to do nothing with it besides watch it burn in catastrophic situations?” he mentioned. The Prince’s Initiative and Council will work to ship 10 key actions aimed toward making a sustainable economic system, as detailed right here.

Responding to the speech, Enterprise within the Neighborhood’s chief govt Amanda Mackenzie mentioned: “The important thing takeaway from Davos 2020 is that, for companies within the UK and globally, it will probably not be enterprise as common.

“Companies do not simply want clear and workable plans for decarbonisation; they should begin placing them in movement as a matter of urgency. The gulf between phrases and actions stays big… The problem for corporations within the 2020s is to implement the optimistic insurance policies they’ve signed as much as, and never simply internally however by way of their total provide chains.”

The large enterprise announcement of the day was the launch of The SDG500 – a coalition of personal and public sector organisations, together with United Nations entities, non-governmental organisations and personal fairness corporations. The coalition launched to mobilise a $500m (£380m) funding platform to assist obtain the Sustainable Improvement Objectives (SDGs) by concentrating on companies working in growing nations.

In the meantime, the WEF itself unveiled initiatives aimed toward planting one trillion bushes and offering one billion folks with higher schooling, abilities and jobs by 2030.

You’ll be able to watch Prince Charles’ handle in full under.

Day Three

Prince Charles snubbing Mike Pence and a number of other assaults on Trump’s character and Thunberg’s strategy apart, the third Day at Davos noticed many key sustainability initiatives launched.

The primary, from the Inexperienced Financial system Coalition, was the Inexperienced Financial system Tracker – a digital instrument which is able to assist nations measure and speed up their transitions to financial techniques that are extra environmentally pleasant and socially honest. The instrument assesses inexperienced insurance policies throughout 5 key areas: measuring and governance; reforming monetary techniques; greening particular person sectors; tackling social inequality and valuing nature. It’s being open-sourced for all nationwide and native governments to make use of.

The World Tourism Plastics Initiative, collectively convened by the United Nations Surroundings Programme (UNEP), the World Tourism Organisation and the Ellen MacArthur Basis, was additionally debuted. The Initiative goals to unite actors throughout the tourism sector in a “systemic” strategy to addressing plastic air pollution by 2025. It welcomes NGOs, governments, native authorities commerce and neighborhood associations and companies, with hotelier Accor being one of many first company signatories.

For these following the summit from the US, the launch of the Company Electrical Automobile Alliance was the large sustainability announcement of the day. Convened by Ceres, the Alliance’s first enterprise members embrace Amazon, Ikea North America, Siemens and AT&T.

Right here within the UK, nonetheless, all eyes within the sustainability sphere had been on farming, because the Committee on Local weather Change (CCC) revealed its suggestions on land-use change for net-zero. The Committee outlined how emissions from land-use, which accounted for 12% of the nationwide complete in 2017, may be diminished by round two-thirds by mid-century and the remaining emissions offset.

Day 4

Constructing on the launch of the SDG500, the UN World Compact unveiled ‘SDG Ambition’, a world initative to assist enterprise alignment with the SDGs and problem corporates which have lagged behind on addressing the World Objectives’ agenda.

UN Secretary-Normal Antonio Guterres gave the speech to launch the initiative, which is being supported by SAP and Accenture. In a latest survey of chief executives throughout the globe by Accenture, simply 21% mentioned their enterprise had a “crucial” position to play in delivering towards the SDGs.

Gutrerres’ speech didn’t cease on the SDG500; he went on to ship a harrowing name to local weather motion from all attendees, saying: “Humankind has declared a warfare on nature and nature is placing again in a really violent manner.” 

Bulletins from particular person companies additionally saved coming, many to mark the UN’s Worldwide Day of Schooling. Olam Cocoa, for instance, marked the growth of its Cocoa Compass schooling programme, in a bid to show youngsters for farming communities throughout the Ivory Coast in regards to the impacts of local weather change and deforestation – and the way they will handle these points.

Because the day drew to an in depth, many had been eager to summarise the occasions of the Discussion board.

Edelman chief govt Richard Edelman mentioned: “We should perceive the magnitude of the necessity for companies to guide…. Individuals are anticipating us to assist them be aggressive”.

He emphasised the necessity for a framing of competitiveness that goes past short-term income and prioritises environmental sustainability, optimistic social impacts and worker advantages similar to upskilling and higher pay.

Different audio system, nonetheless, didn’t share this view, and delegates had been in the end unable to agree on any new measures to enhance carbon pricing.

“We obtained the sensation the WEF was closed in a bubble of positivity away from actuality,” local weather activist Loukina Tille mentioned.

The final phrase was had by WEF president Borge Brende, who mentioned the summit had been “actually exceptional” because of in depth collaboration on a spectrum of worldwide points by private and non-private our bodies.

“We laid the premise for a decade of supply,” Brende mentioned. “The Nationwide Enterprise Council, incorporating 140 of the world’s largest corporations, agreed to assist efforts to develop a core set of frequent metrics and disclosures that could possibly be used to measure non-public sector progress towards key environmental, social and governance targets.”

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